This report explores how self-esteem develops across the lifespan. After much debate, a consensus has been reached that self-esteem is high in childhood, dropping during adolescence (especially for females) and then rises gradually through adulthood. Following this is a steep decline during old age. At all times, males display higher levels of self-esteem over females. Despite the fluctuations, individuals maintain an average self-esteem throughout their lives – those with high sense of self at one point in their lives tend to have high self-esteem in later years, with a lowering after age 70. Further research is recommended into identifying mechanisms that underlie self-esteem, developing a theoretical model of the trajectory of self-esteem over a lifespan and further testing using longitudinal designs.
ROBINS, R. W. & TRZESNIEWSKI, K. H. 2005. Self-esteem development across the lifespan. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 158-162.
Dwyer notes that an executive summary aids recognition of a report’s starting point, direction and key findings for those outside the area of expertise (Dwyer 2013, p. 453). An executive summary details a report’s salient points as demonstrated below for a news story.
The erosion of personal privacy is growing with increased surveillance by governments of its citizens as well as individuals choosing to share many aspects of their lives online. Author Linda Jaivin discusses the modern-day curiosity of how a ‘women of letters’ public reading attracted surprise as event proceedings were not shared afterwards on social media. While this example highlights how people have become used to willingly sharing their lives online, Jaivin then contrasts how government agencies are enabling more covert surveillance of people’s communication which is leading to unwilling losses of personal privacy. The piece concludes with a plea that democratic rights to privacy must apply in virtual as well as real spaces.
Dwyer, Judith 2013, Communication for business and the professions: Strategies and skills, edn. 5, Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest.
Jaivin, Linda 2014, ‘The end of Secrets’, The Monthly’. Viewed 29 March, 2015, at http://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2014/june/1401544800/linda-jaivin/end-secrets
This is a really good summary of the article and makes me want to read it.